In recent years, I have noticed increased hesitancy and even plain refusal from new parents to allow their babies to receive Vitamin K intramuscular injection at birth. This anxiety has initially started in 1992, after a study done by Golding et. al. have shown 2.65-fold increase in leukemia associated with intramuscular Vitamin K injection. The finding has not been replicated by any other subsequent studies. Unfortunately, much public anxiety remains to this day.
Newborn infants that do not receive Vitamin K at birth have increased risk of developing Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (VKDB). VKDB can be further categorized into 3 groups based on the time of presentation as early, classical or late.